Most researchers agree that stating expectations is a useful tool in data analysis. Additionally, most researchers will argue this should be done long before data analysis (ideally, long before data collection).
Your goals in this section are the following:
1) State your expectations based on literature or previous research.
2) Distinguish between one-tailed and two-tailed hypotheses.
For this part of the exercise, your goal is to state, in plain English, what you expect to find in the data (a formal hypothesis will be stated later).
Most hypothesis formation begins with a review of relevant literature. Imagine that a review of the literature regarding the cultures of Belize and Samoa yielded the following information:
Belize and Samoa differ in child rearing styles. Mothers in Belize tend to be very protective of their children while mothers in Samoa tend to let their children roam and explore.
Based on the above short description, what is your initial expectation? That is, what differences do you expect to find in your data between Belize and Samoa?